Opiates are the three major active alkaloids found in the opium poppy: morphine, codeine, and thebaine. The term “opiates” is often used interchangeably with the term “opioids”, which also include the semisynthetic drugs made from these alkaloids. Opioids include heroin, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, fentanyl and many more. All of these substances are physically and psychologically addictive, with dedicated opiate abuse treatment often required to break the bonds of addiction.
Opiate abuse treatment consists of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy measures, with medication treatment sometimes administered on a long-term basis. If you need access to opiate abuse treatment, it’s important to reach out to a specialized treatment clinic as soon as you can.
Don’t hesitate to call Drug Treatment Centers Union City at (201) 751-0607 if you are in need of treatment.
Opioid drugs create physical and psychological dependence, with specialized opiate abuse treatment recommended to enable discontinuation. Physical dependence is a result of extensive opioid exposure, with the body creating physiological changes as it reacts to the presence of opioid drugs.
Opioid dependence is maintained by neuronal adaptations, with brain changes normalized over time as people develop tolerance and dependence. Physical dependence is often accompanied by psychological dependence, with people also experiencing emotional and motivational withdrawal symptoms when opioid use is stopped.
While the terms “dependence” and “addiction” are often used interchangeably, it is possible to be dependent on opioid drugs without being addicted. For example, someone taking morphine for pain relief may suffer physical withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued, yet not have the psychological attachment and drug cravings that characterize addiction. Other behaviors that help to define addiction include uncontrolled consumption and continued drug use despite the existence of negative consequences.
The withdrawal syndrome from opioid drugs can be quite severe, with a medical detox period often recommended. During medical detoxification, people can receive around-the-clock access to medications and professional support, with opioid medications often prescribed to help alleviate withdrawal symptoms. Possible withdrawal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, cramps, sweating, muscle aches, myalgia, tremors, and depression.
Methadone is often administered during the withdrawal period, with long-term methadone programs also set up in the context of opioid replacement therapy. While detox helps to enable discontinuation, it’s important to recognize the limitations of the detox process. Detox does not address the issues surrounding addiction, with behavioral therapies and relapse prevention measures also advised.
Opioid addiction treatment can be divided into pharmacotherapy ad psychotherapy measures, with medication programs set up to reduce relapse rates and behavioral therapies designed to enable lifestyle changes. Opioid replacement therapy is the most well-known example of medication treatment, with long-term and treatment resistant opioid addicts prescribed methadone or buprenorphine as a substitute for problematic opioid drugs.
Opioid replacement therapy is a maintenance therapy and form of harm reduction, with behavioral therapies also needed to address the environmental and emotional precedents of addiction. This form of therapy is available in all but three American states, through residential and out-patient treatment centers.
A wide array of behavioral therapies are initiated for opioid addictions, with common models including family therapy, motivational therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, 12-step support programs, individual counseling and many more. These interventions are designed to change unhealthy behavioral responses by recognizing and working with maladaptive affect and cognitive patterns. Relapse prevention programs are based on similar principles, with contingency management programs treating the consequences of drug use rather than the precedents.
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